Hot-Mix Asphalt Permanent Deformation Evaluated by Hamburg Wheel Tracking, Dynamic Modulus, and Repeated Load Tests Academic Article uri icon


  • Permanent deformation (or rutting) is a common distress in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. As part of the HMA mix and structural design processes to optimize field performance, the Hamburg wheel-tracking, dynamic modulus, and uniaxial repeated load permanent deformation tests have been developed to characterize the HMA rutting resistance potential. The primary objective of this study was to compare the three laboratory rutting tests of HMA mixes and to relate their rutting predictive potential to actual field performance. The research methodology incorporated a two-phase approach: laboratory testing and field performance monitoring of selected mixes under both conventional traffic loading and accelerated pavement testing. For the HMA mixes evaluated, a good correlation was observed in the three laboratory tests and in comparison with actual in situ field performance. Overall, the findings indicated that the Hamburg wheel-tracking test was the most feasible test for daily routine HMA mix design and screening, while both the dynamic modulus and repeated load permanent deformation tests exhibited greater potential for comprehensive characterization of HMA material property (e.g., modulus) and applications for pavement structural design as research-level test tools.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Walubita, L. F., Zhang, J., Das, G., Hu, X., Mushota, C., Alvarez, A. E., & Scullion, T.

citation count

  • 66

publication date

  • January 2012