Every year, state highway agencies apply large amounts of seal coats and thin overlays to pavements to improve the surface condition, but these measures do not successfully address the problem. Overall pavement condition continues to deteriorate because of the structural deformation of pavement layers and the subgrade. To make effective decisions about the type of treatment needed, one should take into consideration the structural condition of a pavement. Several different structural estimators can be calculated by using falling weight deflectometer data and information stored in the Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) at the Texas Department of Transportation. The analysis considers pavement modulus and structural number as the structural estimators of a pavement. The evaluation method is based on the sensitivity of the structural estimators to deterioration descriptors. The deterioration per equivalent single-axle load of all major scores stored in the Texas PMIS is proposed as the primary indicator of pavement deterioration. In addition, the use of the structural condition index is recommended as a screening tool to discriminate between pavements that need structural reinforcement and those that do not. This index is calibrated for use in maintenance and rehabilitation analysis at the network level.