- Recent years have seen an increase in the study of pain in children. However, a comprehensive framework to help guide pediatric pain assessment has not been available. A developmental approach to facilitate cognitive-biobehavioral assessment of pediatric pain is presented and discussed. An illustrative literature review of pain assessment measures, cognitive development and conceptualizations of health and illness is provided. The developmental cognitive-biobehavioral approach is offered as a guide for future research in pediatric pain assessment.