The PedsQL™ in Pediatric Cancer Pain
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The objective of this prospective study was to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between pain and emotional distress in children and adolescents with cancer as measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Emotional Functioning and Pain Scales. The PedsQL 1.0 Generic Core Scales are multidimensional scales developed as the generic core measure to be integrated with the PedsQL Disease-Specific Modules. The PedsQL 1.0 Cancer Module was designed to measure pediatric cancer-specific health-related quality of life. The PedsQL Generic Core Scales, Emotional Functioning Scale and Cancer Module Pain Scale, were administered to 69 children and 59 adolescents and their parents at Time 1 and Time 2, which was 6 months on average after Time 1. Prospective hierarchical multiple regression analyses supported a longitudinal predictive model with Time 1 pain predicting Time 2 pain and Time 1 emotional distress predicting Time 2 emotional distress, respectively. Time 1 emotional distress did not predict Time 2 pain, and Time 1 pain did not predict Time 2 emotional distress. The results demonstrate that pediatric cancer pain and emotional distress, although associated cross-sectionally, are differentially predictive in prospective longitudinal analyses. These results suggest that both pain and emotional distress should be targeted for treatment interventions concurrently to enhance long-term health-related quality of life of the pediatric patient with cancer.