Two Classes of New Peptaibols Are Synthesized by a Single Non-ribosomal Peptide Synthetase of Trichoderma virens * Academic Article uri icon


  • Peptaibols are a group of small peptides having a high ╬▒-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) content and produced by filamentous fungi, especially by the members of the genus Trichoderma (anamorph Hypocrea). These antibiotics are economically important for their anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties as well as ability to induce systemic resistance in plants against microbial invasion. In this study we present sequences of two classes (11-residue and 14-residue) of peptaibols produced by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens. Of the 35 11-residue peptaibols sequenced, 18 are hitherto not described, and all the 53 14-residue sequences described by us here are new. We have also identified a peptaibol synthetase (non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, NRPS) with 14 complete modules in the genome of this fungus and disruption of this single gene (designated as tex2) resulted in the loss of both the classes of peptaibols. We, thus present here an unprecedented case where a single NRPS encodes for two classes of peptaibols. The new peptaibols identified here could have applications as therapeutic agents for the management of human and plant health.

altmetric score

  • 6

author list (cited authors)

  • Mukherjee, P. K., Wiest, A., Ruiz, N., Keightley, A., Moran-Diez, M. E., McCluskey, K., Pouchus, Y. F., & Kenerley, C. M.

citation count

  • 77

complete list of authors

  • Mukherjee, Prasun K||Wiest, Aric||Ruiz, Nicolas||Keightley, Andrew||Moran-Diez, Maria E||McCluskey, Kevin||Pouchus, Yves Fran├žois||Kenerley, Charles M

publication date

  • February 2011