DISPOSITION OF CEFTIOFUR AND ITS ACTIVE METABOLITES IN FALLOW DEER (DAMA DAMA) FOLLOWING SINGLE-DOSE INTRAVENOUS AND INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION.
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Septicemia and foot infections associated with Fusobacterium necrophorum , Pasturella multocida, and Streptococcus suis in captive fallow deer (Dama dama) are reasonably treated with ceftiofur hydrochloride. This study describes the disposition of ceftiofur after single-dose intravenous and intramuscular administration of 3.650.1678 mg/kg in six female adult fallow deer using a nonrandomized crossover design and a 7-day washout period. Serial blood samples were collected for 12 hr postdrug administration. Ceftiofur bioactivity, including its active metabolite desfuroylceftiofur, was quantitated in serum using a microbiologic assay. After i.v. administration, the extrapolated serum drug concentration reported as median (range) was 52.83 (43.32-57.49) g/ml and elimination half-life was 178.36 (19.75-217.22) min. The volume of distribution at steady-state was 0.171 (0.101-0.229) L/kg and serum clearance was 0.97 (0.48-4.3) ml/min per kg. After i.m. administration, median peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 14.37 (9.00-32.00) g/ml at 54.5 (11.00-95.00) min. The median elimination half-life and mean residence time were 128.32 (38.03-242.40) and 203.65 (62.48-347.15) min, respectively. The median absorption time after i.m. administration was 14.77 (-57.74 to 94.79) min. Bioavailability of ceftiofur following i.m. administration was 78.00 (58.00-137.00) percent. Based on this study, a mean i.m. dose of ceftiofur of 3.650.1678 mg/kg every 12 hr is recommended for maintaining serum concentrations above MIC90 levels for infections associated with F. necrophorum, P. multocida, and S. suis, in addition to other susceptible infectious bacteria.