Geographic routing is well suited for large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) because it is nearly stateless. One important challenge is that network holes may arbitrarily increase the routing path length. Fortunately, recent studies have shown that constant path stretch is achievable using nonlocal information. The constant stretch, however, is possible at the cost of high communication and storage overhead: a source node must complete a path-setup process prior to data transmission by exchanging a message with a destination node using a default geographic routing (e.g., GPSR).
In this article, we propose the first geographic routing protocol (LVGR) that provably achieves worst-case stretch of (D/) (where D is the diameter of the network and is the communication range of nodes) with low communication and storage overhead. LVGR represents a hole as a convex hull, the internal structure of which is represented as a local visibility graph. Based on the convex hulls and local visibility graphs, LVGR generates paths with guaranteed stretch. Through theoretical analysis and extensive simulations, we prove the worst-case stretch of LVGR and demonstrate that LVGR reduces communication overhead by up to 97% and storage overhead by up to 60%, compared with the state of the art.