Supercritical fluid extraction provides an enhancement to the immune response for orally-delivered hepatitis B surface antigen. Academic Article uri icon


  • The hepatitis B virus continues to be a major pathogen worldwide despite the availability of an effective parenteral vaccine for over 20 years. Orally-delivered subunit vaccines produced in maize may help to alleviate the disease burden by providing a low-cost, heat-stable alternative to the parenteral vaccine. Oral subunit vaccination has been an elusive goal due to the large amounts of antigen required to induce an immunologic response when administered through the digestive tract. Here we show that high levels of HBsAg were obtained in maize grain, the grain was formed into edible wafers, and wafers were fed to mice at a concentration of approximately 300 g/g. When these wafers were made with supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)-treated maize material, robust IgG and IgA responses in sera were observed that were comparable to the injected commercial vaccine (Recombivax()). In addition, all mice administered SFE wafers showed high secretory IgA titers in fecal material whereas Recombivax() treated mice showed no detectable titer. Increased salivary IgA titers were also detected in SFE-fed mice but not in Recombivax() treated mice. Wafers made from hexane-treated or full fat maize material induced immunologic responses, but fecal titers were attenuated relative to those produced by SFE-treated wafers. These responses demonstrate the feasibility of using a two-dose oral vaccine booster in the absence of an adjuvant to induce immunologic responses in both sera and at mucosal surfaces, and highlight the potential limitations of using an exclusively parenteral dosing regime.

published proceedings

  • Vaccine

altmetric score

  • 6.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Hayden, C. A., Smith, E. M., Turner, D. D., Keener, T. K., Wong, J. C., Walker, J. H., ... Howard, J. A.

citation count

  • 22

complete list of authors

  • Hayden, Celine A||Smith, Emily M||Turner, Debra D||Keener, Todd K||Wong, Jeffrey C||Walker, John H||Tizard, Ian R||Jimenez-Flores, Rafael||Howard, John A

publication date

  • March 2014