Evaluation of oral, subcutaneous, and nasal administration of Salmonella enteritidis-immune lymphokines on the potentiation of a protective heterophilic inflammatory response to Salmonella enteritidis in day-old chickens. Academic Article uri icon


  • We have previously reported that the prophylactic administration of factor(s) from T-cell supernatants derived from Salmonella enteritidis-immune chickens (ILK) have a favorable effect in controlling or eliminating salmonellosis in neonatal poultry. Experimentally, we have used the intraperitoneal injection as the standard method of administering ILK to neonatal poultry. However, this method is neither easy, practical, nor economical for the poultry industry. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of oral (p.o.), intranasal (i.n.), and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of ILK for ease of delivery, induction of protective resistance against Salmonella enteritidis (Se) organ invasion, and the ability to activate peripheral blood heterophils in day-old chickens. In the first experiments, delivery of ILK p.o., i.n., and s.c. significantly (P < 0.01) increased the resistance of day-old chickens to Se organ invasion. The level of protection was equivalent to that induced by the i.p. route. Administration of a comparable protein control (bovine serum albumin, BSA) by the 3 routes induced no protective effect against Se organ invasion. Likewise, a significant increase was found in the number of circulating heterophils within 4 h of administration of the ILK by all routes. In the 2nd experiment, the function of the heterophils from ILK-treated birds was compared with that of the control cells in adherence, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis assays. The heterophils from birds given ILK i.p., s.c., p.o., or i.n. had significantly (P < 0.01) increased functional activities when compared to the activities of the heterophils from the control birds. These studies indicate that the delivery of ILK either orally or parenterally, routes which can be used by the poultry industry, can confer protection to chickens against a localized enteric Se organ invasion by potentiating the systemic heterophilic innate response.

author list (cited authors)

  • Kogut, M. H., Genovese, K., Moyes, R. B., & Stanker, L. H.

citation count

  • 13

complete list of authors

  • Kogut, MH||Genovese, K||Moyes, RB||Stanker, LH

publication date

  • January 1998