A process-based approach for ammonia emission measurements at a free-stall dairy Conference Paper uri icon


  • A protocol using flux chambers was employed to determine ammonia emission rates from different low level area sources (LLAS) including free stalls, open lots, manure composting areas, lagoons and separated solids in a central Texas dairy. Data including ammonia emissions from these sources were collected for summer and winter seasons of 2003. Ammonia concentration measurements were made using chemiluminescence-based analyzers. The estimated emission rates for the facility were 24.725.4 kg.day -1 for winter and 63.131.1 kg.day -1 for summer. This difference was due to temperature, loading rate of dairy waste, and bacterial activity of LLAS. The uncertainty analysis showed that 9.4% of ammonia sampling uncertainty was attributed to ammonia sensors, calibration gas impurity and air flow controllers. In winter, the compost and the free-stall contributed about 77% to the total emission rates for the facility. But in summer, 65% of overall ammonia emissions were contributed by two lagoons at the dairy. These results suggest that seasonally dependent best management practices may be needed to reduce annual average ammonia emissions from free stall dairies.

published proceedings

  • ASAE Annual International Meeting 2004

author list (cited authors)

  • Mutlu, A., Mukhtar, S., Capareda, S. C., Boriack, C. N., Lacey, R. E., Shaw, B. W., & Parnell, C. B.

complete list of authors

  • Mutlu, A||Mukhtar, S||Capareda, SC||Boriack, CN||Lacey, RE||Shaw, BW||Parnell, CB

publication date

  • December 2004