Ixodes ricinus immunogenic saliva protein, homologue to Amblyomma americanum AV422: Determining its potential for use in tick bite confirmation. Academic Article uri icon


  • Tick bites often go unnoticed, so specific reliable tests are needed to confirm them for prompt diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. One of the promising candidates for developing such a test is AV422, a tick saliva protein that has been conserved across tick genera. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of the AV422 homologue from Ixodes ricinus to be used for tick bite detection for both Prostriata and Metastriata. We expressed recombinant (r) I. ricinus (Ir) AV422 in E. coli and subjected it to Western blot analysis using rat antibodies to saliva proteins of both I. ricinus (Prostriata) and Dermacentor reticulatus (Metastriata) larvae. Our data demonstrate that rIrAV422 specifically bound to antibodies from sera of rats used for both I. ricinus and D. reticulatus larvae feeding, but not to antibodies from control serum, emphasizing its specificity since tick bites were the sole cause of sera reactivity.

published proceedings

  • Ticks Tick Borne Dis

author list (cited authors)

  • Mihaljica, D., Markovi, D., Radulovi, . ., Mulenga, A., aki, S., Sukara, R., Samardi, J., & Tomanovi, S.

citation count

  • 3

complete list of authors

  • Mihaljica, Darko||Marković, Dragana||Radulović, Željko||Mulenga, Albert||Ćakić, Sanja||Sukara, Ratko||Samardžić, Jelena||Tomanović, Snežana

publication date

  • March 2017