Mixed Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Tracking with Backstepping Formation Control for Multi-Nonholonomic Mobile Robots Subject to Uncertainties Academic Article uri icon


  • 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. This paper aims at attaining one-leader & two-followers (1L-2F) formation control of multi-nonholonomic mobile robot (multi-NMR) systems subject to uncertainties and, at the same time, achieves trajectory-tracking of the leader NMR. To begin, the tracking error between the leader and a virtual reference robot is defined. Then, the extension to a leader-follower formation control structure is utilized to define the formation error (i.e., separation and orientation errors) between the leader and the followers. It has been proven that fuzzy sliding-mode tracking control (FSMTC) and backstepping formation control (BFC) can improve performance and stability when the overall closed-loop system is subject to uncertainties. Therefore, FSMTC and BFC are used for trajectory tracking of the leader NMR and formation control for two followers with respect to the leader, respectively. The stability of the closed-loop multi-NMR systems, i.e., trajectory tracking and formation control, is demonstrated through Lyapunov stability criteria. Finally, to validate the theoretical developments, computer simulations are conducted which prove the effectiveness, efficiency and robustness of the proposed scheme.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Wu, H., Karkoub, M., & Hwang, C.

citation count

  • 23

complete list of authors

  • Wu, Hsiu-Ming||Karkoub, Mansour||Hwang, Chih-Lyang

publication date

  • October 2014