Preliminary evaluation of BMP-2 expression and histological characteristics during apexification with calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate. Academic Article uri icon


  • Histological characteristics and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression were evaluated in apexification procedures using calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH)2] and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). In three of four quadrants of the mouth, monkey (Macaca fascicularis) teeth were infected by pulpal exposure to saliva. After 90 days, each group was treated with Ca (OH)2 or MTA. Infected, untreated teeth were used as negative controls and normally developing teeth were used as positive controls. Areas within the apical region of each sample were scored based upon histological findings and BMP-2 expression. Overall, BMP-2 expression in all areas was similar in the Ca (OH)2, MTA, and infection/no treatment groups, which tended to be more immunoreactive for BMP-2 than the untreated group. Use of MTA in combination with Ca (OH)2 may initiate regeneration of the periodontium more quickly than either material used alone, but further studies involving MTA use in apical closure are indicated.

published proceedings

  • J Endod

author list (cited authors)

  • Ham, K. A., Witherspoon, D. E., Gutmann, J. L., Ravindranath, S., Gait, T. C., & Opperman, L. A.

citation count

  • 44

complete list of authors

  • Ham, Karla A||Witherspoon, David E||Gutmann, James L||Ravindranath, S||Gait, Toh Chooi||Opperman, Lynne A

publication date

  • January 2005