Emerging intra-articular drug delivery systems for the temporomandibular joint
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Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders are a heterogeneous group of diseases that cause progressive joint degeneration leading to chronic pain and reduced quality of life. Both effective pain reduction and restoration of TMJ function remain unmet challenges. Intra-articular injections of corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are currently used to treat chronic pain, but these methods require multiple injections that increase the risk of iatrogenic joint damage and other complications. The small and emerging field of TMJ tissue engineering aims to reduce pain and disability through novel strategies that induce joint tissue regeneration. Development of methods for sustained, intra-articular release of growth factors and other pro-regenerative signals will be critical for the success of TMJ tissue engineering strategies. This review discusses methods of intra-articular drug delivery to the TMJ, as well as emerging injectable controlled release systems with potential to improve TMJ drug delivery, to encourage further research in the development of sustained release systems for both long-term pain management and to enhance tissue engineering strategies for TMJ regeneration.
author list (cited authors)
Mountziaris, P. M., Kramer, P. R., & Mikos, A. G.