G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Is Required for Rhythmic Olfactory Responses in Drosophila
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BACKGROUND: The Drosophila circadian clock controls rhythms in the amplitude of odor-induced electrophysiological responses that peak during the middle of night. These rhythms are dependent on clocks in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), suggesting that odorant receptors (ORs) or OR-dependent processes are under clock control. Because responses to odors are initiated by heteromeric OR complexes that form odor-gated and cyclic-nucleotide-activated cation channels, we tested whether regulators of ORs were under circadian-clock control. RESULTS: The levels of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (Gprk2) messenger RNA and protein cycle in a circadian-clock-dependent manner with a peak around the middle of the night in antennae. Gprk2 overexpression in OSNs from wild-type or cyc(01) flies elicits constant high-amplitude electroantennogram (EAG) responses to ethyl acetate, whereas Gprk2 mutants produce constant low-amplitude EAG responses. ORs accumulate to high levels in the dendrites of OSNs around the middle of the night, and this dendritic localization of ORs is enhanced by GPRK2 overexpression at times when ORs are primarily localized in the cell body. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a model in which circadian-clock-dependent rhythms in GPRK2 abundance control the rhythmic accumulation of ORs in OSN dendrites, which in turn control rhythms in olfactory responses. The enhancement of OR function by GPRK2 contrasts with the traditional role of GPRKs in desensitizing activated receptors and suggests that GPRK2 functions through a fundamentally different mechanism to modulate OR activity.
author list (cited authors)
Tanoue, S., Krishnan, P., Chatterjee, A., & Hardin, P. E.