The effects of initial condition of fracture surfaces, acid spending and acid type on conductivity of acid fracture
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Fracture conductivity and the effects of treatment variables of acid fracturing can be studied in the laboratory. We conducted experiments based on scaling down the field conditions to laboratory scale by matching Reynold's and Peclet numbers. Experiments conducted consist of three stages: dynamic etching, surface characterization of etched cores, and conductivity measurement. The effect of initial condition of fracture surfaces on the etching pattern and conductivity were investigated in this study. Another investigation is the variation of conductivity along the fracture due to acid spending. We also investigated the contact time, acid system type, and treatment temperature effects on conductivity using San Andres dolomite cores. The results from these studies showed that rough-surface fractures generate higher conductivity by an order of magnitude compared with a smooth-surface fracture at low-closure stress. Also, conductivity generated on rough-surface fractures by smoothing peaks and deepening valleys which widen the gap between the fracture surfaces after closure and acid creates conductivity on smooth-surface fractures by differential etching that creates asperities. The results also suggest that decrease in acid strength because of spending does not necessarily result in lower conductivity; and etched volume alone is not adequate to predicate the conductivity. Conductivity results from a combination of etching pattern, etched volume, and rock compressive strength after etching. In-situ crosslinked acid was found to be more effective in etching rock and controlling acid leakoff compared with linear-gelled acid. Also, crosslinked acid reduces the number of pits and the pit diameters. Based on conductivity tests, linear-gelled acid is more favorable at higher temperatures while in-situ crosslinked acid showed higher conductivity at lower temperatures. For a rough-surface fracture, shorter contact time created high conductivity compared to longer contact while injecting the same volume of acid, suggesting the existence of an optimum contact time. Copyright 2014, Offshore Technology Conference.
author list (cited authors)
Al-Momin, A., Zhu, D., & Hill, A. D.