Hsp72 (HSPA1A) Prevents Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Aggregation and Toxicity: A New Approach for Type 2 Diabetes Treatment.
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Type 2 diabetes is a growing public health concern and accounts for approximately 90% of all the cases of diabetes. Besides insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes is characterized by a deficit in -cell mass as a result of misfolded human islet amyloid polypeptide (h-IAPP) which forms toxic aggregates that destroy pancreatic -cells. Heat shock proteins (HSP) play an important role in combating the unwanted self-association of unfolded proteins. We hypothesized that Hsp72 (HSPA1A) prevents h-IAPP aggregation and toxicity. In this study, we demonstrated that thermal stress significantly up-regulates the intracellular expression of Hsp72, and prevents h-IAPP toxicity against pancreatic -cells. Moreover, Hsp72 (HSPA1A) overexpression in pancreatic -cells ameliorates h-IAPP toxicity. To test the hypothesis that Hsp72 (HSPA1A) prevents aggregation and fibril formation, we established a novel C. elegans model that expresses the highly amyloidogenic human pro-IAPP (h-proIAPP) that is implicated in amyloid formation and -cell toxicity. We demonstrated that h-proIAPP expression in body-wall muscles, pharynx and neurons adversely affects C. elegans development. In addition, we demonstrated that h-proIAPP forms insoluble aggregates and that the co-expression of h-Hsp72 in our h-proIAPP C. elegans model, increases h-proIAPP solubility. Furthermore, treatment of transgenic h-proIAPP C. elegans with ADAPT-232, known to induce the expression and release of Hsp72 (HSPA1A), significantly improved the growth retardation phenotype of transgenic worms. Taken together, this study identifies Hsp72 (HSPA1A) as a potential treatment to prevent -cell mass decline in type 2 diabetic patients and establishes for the first time a novel in vivo model that can be used to select compounds that attenuate h-proIAPP aggregation and toxicity.