• 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Galaxies with stellar masses near M contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present-day stellar masses near M, at 5 1010 M (defined here to be MW-mass) and 1011 M (defined to be M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). ZFOURGE is a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z 3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star formation rates, combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR Hubble Space Telescope imaging from Cosmic Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer and Herschel far-IR imaging from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-Herschel and CANDELS-Herschel. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of two to three lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star formation in present-day M galaxies, requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and SFRs imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z 0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the Srsic index. Therefore, the growth of galaxy bulges in M galaxies corresponds to a rapid decline in the galaxy gas fractions and/or a decrease in the star formation efficiency.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 110.316

author list (cited authors)

  • Papovich, C., Labbe, I., Quadri, R., Tilvi, V., Behroozi, P., Bell, E. F., ... Willner, S. P.

citation count

  • 103

complete list of authors

  • Papovich, C||Labbe, I||Quadri, R||Tilvi, V||Behroozi, P||Bell, EF||Glazebrook, K||Spitler, L||Straatman, CMS||Tran, K-V||Cowley, M||Dave, R||Dekel, A||Dickinson, M||Ferguson, HC||Finkelstein, SL||Gawiser, E||Inami, H||Faber, SM||Kacprzak, GG||Kawinwanichakij, L||Kocevski, D||Koekemoer, A||Koo, DC||Kurczynski, P||Lotz, JM||Lu, Y||Lucas, RA||McIntosh, D||Mehrtens, N||Mobasher, B||Monson, A||Morrison, G||Nanayakkara, T||Persson, SE||Salmon, B||Simons, R||Tomczak, A||van Dokkum, P||Weiner, B||Willner, SP

publication date

  • April 2015