Refinements of and commentary on the silver staining techniques of Fernández-Galiano Academic Article uri icon


  • The original ammoniacal silver carbonate staining technique and subsequent modification developed by Fernández-Galiano are useful for investigating ciliate protozoan systematics and/or ciliate cortical structure and morphogenesis. The technique is complicated, however, by both uncertainties arising from the need to count drops of reagents and subjective control of the staining intensity. I have resolved these complications by defining volumes of reagents rather than using drops and by defining a range of staining times. I also comment on various steps of the techniques. My techniques are simplified and refined to produce consistent, high quality staining results.

author list (cited authors)

  • Aufderheide, K. J.

citation count

  • 0

publication date

  • July 2016