Prediction of porosity in metal-based additive manufacturing using spatial Gaussian process models
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2016 Elsevier B.V. Additive manufacturing (AM) is a set of emerging technologies that can produce physical objects with complex geometrical shapes directly from a digital model. With many unique capabilities, such as design freedom, it has recently gained increasing attention from researchers, practitioners, and public media. However, achieving the full potential of AM is hampered by many challenges, including the lack of predictive models that correlate processing parameters with the properties of the processed part. We develop a Gaussian process-based predictive model for the learning and prediction of the porosity in metallic parts produced using selective laser melting (SLM a laser-based AM process). More specifically, a spatial Gaussian process regression model is first developed to model part porosity as a function of SLM process parameters. Next, a Bayesian inference framework is used to estimate the statistical model parameters, and the porosity of the part at any given setting is predicted using the Kriging method. A case study is conducted to validate this predictive framework through predicting the porosity of 17-4 PH stainless steel manufacturing on a ProX 100 selective laser melting system.