Utilization of soy protein isolate and konjac blends in a low-fat bologna (model system).
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Low-fat bologna formulations (LFBMS, <2.0% fat) were manufactured in a model system with two levels (0.5 or 1%) of two konjac blends (KB; KSS=konjac flour/starch and KNC=konjac flour/carrageenan/starch), and three levels (0, 2.2, 4.4%, DWB) of prehydrated soy protein isolate (SPI) to replace 0, 2 and 4% of the meat protein, respectively. Compared to 0.5% KB, the 1% level reduced (p<0.05) protein solubility (PS), vacuum purge (VP, %) and texture profile analysis (TPA) hardness. LFBMS containing KNC had higher (p<0.05) cooking yields, TPA fracturability and shear stress, but lower (p<0.05) expressible moisture (EM), VP values and TPA cohesiveness than KSS. Replacement of 4% meat protein with SPI increased (p<0.05) pH and yellowness (b*), but decreased (p<0.05) redness (a*), PS, EM and most textural characteristics, whereas no differences (p>0.05) were observed between 0 and 2% of meat protein replacements with SPI for most characteristics.