Nanostructured materials designed for cell binding and transduction. Academic Article uri icon


  • The surface-functionalization of shell cross-linked (SCK) nanoparticles with the oligomeric peptide sequence YGRKKRRQRRR, the protein transduction domain (PTD) from the human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein, is described, and the cell binding interactions these nanobioconjugates exhibit are demonstrated. A convergent synthetic strategy was employed, whereby the SCK nanoparticles and the PTD were prepared independently and then coupled together during immobilization of the PTD component on a solid support. The SCK nanoparticles were prepared by the micellization of amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(epsilon-caprolactone-b-acrylic acid), followed by amidation-based cross-linking of the acrylic acid residues located within the micellar corona. The PTD sequence was constructed upon a solid support, from C-terminus to N-terminus, followed by extension with four glycine residues, leaving the amino chain end for subsequent coupling with remaining acrylic acid functionalities present on the surface of the SCK. Finally, cleavage from the solid support was performed, which also facilitated deprotection of the peptide side chain functionalities as well as hydrolysis of the poly(epsilon-caprolactone) segments composing the SCK core domain, to yield PTD-derivatized nanocage structures (PTD-nanocage). Covalent labeling of the SCK precursor with fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide provided fluorescently tagged PTD-nanocage nanobioconjugates to allow for their detection by fluorescence microscopy. The fluorescent PTD-nanocage bioconjugates were found to interact with CHO cells and HeLa cells, whereas the analogous structure lacking the PTD component did not. CHO cells bound with fluorescent PTD-nanocage bioconjugates were analyzed using flow cytometry and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Fluorescence confocal microscopy of isolated bioconjugate-bound CHO cells indicated that the bioconjugated nanoparticles were primarily located near the cell periphery; however, transduction of the nanoparticle into the cells also occurred.

published proceedings

  • Biomacromolecules

altmetric score

  • 9

author list (cited authors)

  • Liu, J., Zhang, Q., Remsen, E. E., & Wooley, K. L.

citation count

  • 138

complete list of authors

  • Liu, J||Zhang, Q||Remsen, EE||Wooley, KL

publication date

  • June 2001