Determination of the bioavailability of biotin conjugated onto shell cross-linked (SCK) nanoparticles. Academic Article uri icon


  • Shell cross-linked nanoparticles (SCKs) presenting surface- and bioavailable biotin functional groups were synthesized via a mixed micelle methodology, whereby co-micellization of chain terminal biotinylated poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(methyl acrylate) (PAA-b-PMA) and nonbiotinylated PAA-b-PMA were cross-linked in an intramicellar fashion within the shell layer of the mixed micelles, between the carboxylic acid groups of PAA and the amine functionalities of 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethylamine. The hydrodynamic diameters (D(h)) of the micelles and the SCKs with different biotinylated block copolymer contents were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and the dimensions of the SCKs were characterized with tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The amount of surface-available biotin was tuned by varying the stoichiometric ratio of the biotinylated PAA-b-PMA versus the nonbiotinylated PAA-b-PMA, as demonstrated with solution-state, binding interaction analyses, an avidin/HABA (avidin/4'-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid) competitive binding assay, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The avidin/HABA assay found the amount of available biotin at the surface of the biotinylated SCK nanoparticles to increase with increasing biotin-terminated block copolymer incorporation, but to be less than 25% of the theoretical value. FCS measurements showed the same trend.

published proceedings

  • J Am Chem Soc

altmetric score

  • 6

author list (cited authors)

  • Qi, K., Ma, Q., Remsen, E. E., Clark, C. G., & Wooley, K. L.

citation count

  • 178

complete list of authors

  • Qi, Kai||Ma, Qinggao||Remsen, Edward E||Clark, Christopher G||Wooley, Karen L

publication date

  • June 2004