Administering Spatial and Cognitive Instruments In-class and On-line: Are These Equivalent? Academic Article uri icon


  • © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Standardized, well-established paper-and-pencil tests, which measure spatial abilities or which measure reasoning abilities, have long been found to be predictive of success in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. Instructors can use these tests for prediction of success and to inform instruction. A comparative administration of spatial visualization and cognitive reasoning tests, between in-class (proctored paper and pencil) and on-line (unproctored Internet) (N = 457), was used to investigate and to determine whether the differing instrument formats yielded equal measures of spatial ability and reasoning ability in large first-semester general chemistry sections. Although some gender differences were found, findings suggest that some differences across administration formats, but that on-line administration had similar properties of predicting chemistry performance as the in-class version. Therefore, on-line administration is a viable option for instructors to consider especially when dealing with large classes.

published proceedings

  • Journal of Science Education and Technology

altmetric score

  • 2.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Williamson, K. C., Williamson, V. M., & Hinze, S. R

citation count

  • 6

complete list of authors

  • Williamson, Kenneth C||Williamson, Vickie M||Hinze, Scott R

publication date

  • August 2016