Following a Folding Transition with Capillary Electrophoresis and Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Academic Article uri icon


  • Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is increasingly used to describe solution-phase phenomena and has recently been used to establish the presence of multiple intermediates during the folding of a model polypeptide, polyproline. These observations, however, are made on gas-phase structures. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a complementary solution-phase technique, also based on the separation of charged species as a function of size and charge. Here, both ion mobility and capillary electrophoresis are used to follow the folding transition of a 13-mer polyproline peptide from the all-cis polyproline I (PPI) conformation to the all-trans polyproline II (PPII) conformation upon immersion in aqueous solvent. Synchronous folding processes are observed using both techniques. Eight conformers are observed using ion mobility. Although only five peaks are observed using capillary electrophoresis, these peaks can be modeled as sums of the observed IMS conformers; this is strong evidence that ion mobility is sampling solution-phase structures. CE measurements provide the first direct evidence that multiple folding intermediates are present in solution.

published proceedings

  • Anal Chem

author list (cited authors)

  • Barr, J. D., Shi, L., Russell, D. H., Clemmer, D. E., & Holliday, A. E.

citation count

  • 7

complete list of authors

  • Barr, John D||Shi, Liuqing||Russell, David H||Clemmer, David E||Holliday, Alison E

publication date

  • November 2016