Functional analysis of RNA binding by the hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
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Protein-RNA interaction plays a critical role in regulating RNA synthesis by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). RNAs of 7 nucleotides (nt) or longer had affinities 5-fold better than an RNA of 5 nt, suggesting a minimal length required for binding. To identify RNA contact sites on the HCV RdRp, a biotinylated 7-nt RNA capable of directing de novo initiation was used in a process that coupled reversible formaldehyde cross-linking, RNA affinity chromatography, and mass spectrometry. By this process, we identified 18 peptides cross-linked to the 7-nt RNA. When these identified peptides were overlaid on the three-dimensional structures of NS5B, most mapped to the fingers subdomain, connecting loops between fingers and thumb subdomains and in the putative RNA binding channel. Two of the identified peptides resided in the active site cavity of the RdRp. Recombinant HCV RdRp with single residue changes in likely RNA contact sites were generated and characterized for effects on HCV RdRp activity. Mutant proteins had significant effects on cross-linking to 7-nt RNA and reduced RNA synthesis in vitro by 2- to 20-fold compared with wild type protein. When the mutations were tested for the replication of HCV RNA in the context of the cells transfected with the HCV subgenomic replicon, all except one prevented colony formation, indicating a defect in HCV RNA replication. These biochemical and functional analyses identified a number of residues in the HCV RdRp that are important for HCV RNA synthesis.