- The benefits of gradient techniques in the study of lipid membranes are demonstrated on a sample of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3 phosphocholine (POPC) liposomes embedded with ibuprofen. Most techniques from gradient NMR spectroscopy on solution samples are directly applicable to membrane samples subjected to magic angle spinning (MAS). Gradient-enhanced homo- and heteronuclear chemical shift correlation techniques were used to make resonance assignments. Gradient NOESY experiments provide insight into the location and dynamics of lipids, ibuprofen and water. Application of gradients not only reduces experiment time but also the t(1) noise in the multi-dimensional spectra. Diffusion measurements with pulsed field gradients characterize lateral movements of lipid and drug molecules in membranes. The theoretical framework for data analysis of MAS diffusion experiments on randomly oriented multilamellar liposomes is presented.