Hierarchical relationships between borderline, schizotypal, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVE: Comorbidity among personality disorders is widely considered problematic. The validity of one proposed solution, diagnostic hierarchies, was investigated in the current study with respect to borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. METHOD: One approach used discriminant functions, derived from multiple psycho-social domains, that were used to classify comorbid individuals from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder study (CLPS) to explore the possibility of hierarchical precedence of one personality disorder over another. A second approach examined the incremental increase in R(2)-value in predicting functioning and personality provided by each diagnosis over each other diagnosis. RESULTS: Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was consistently subordinate to other diagnoses, whereas other indications of hierarchical relationships were domain-specific. CONCLUSION: Results indicate minimal support for an over-arching hierarchical pattern among studied personality disorders, and suggest the inclusion of all relevant diagnoses in clinical practice.

published proceedings

  • Acta Psychiatr Scand

altmetric score

  • 1

author list (cited authors)

  • Hopwood, C. J., Morey, L. C., Gunderson, J. G., Skodol, A. E., Tracie Shea, M., Grilo, C. M., & McGlashan, T. H

citation count

  • 15

complete list of authors

  • Hopwood, CJ||Morey, LC||Gunderson, JG||Skodol, AE||Tracie Shea, M||Grilo, CM||McGlashan, TH

publication date

  • May 2006