2017 Elsevier B.V. Mammalian memory is organized into multiple systems that may be dissociated by not only their distinct operating principles but also by the distinct brain regions that subserve them. Classically research has demonstrated that hippocampus-dependent spatial/cognitive memory may be dissociated from more primitive learning and memory functions subserved by the basal ganglia. Recent evidence suggests that the basal ganglia may be functionally heterogeneous, with different subregions mediating distinct types of learning and memory. In the present chapter, we review lesion and behavioral pharmacology studies in rodents that have delineated distinct mnemonic functions for the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), dorsomedial striatum (DMS), and nucleus accumbens. The DLS mediates stimulusresponse/habit memory. The DMS mediates complex maze learning, cognitive flexibility, and actionoutcome learning, and the nucleus accumbens mediates stimulusoutcome learning and the motivational control of learning and behavior. Together the basal ganglia may incorporate limbic, sensory, and executive information from higher-order brain nuclei to influence motor behavior and, thus, generate behavioral strategies for gaining favorable outcomes.