Personality Assessment Inventory scores as predictors of misconduct, recidivism, and violence: A meta-analytic review. Academic Article uri icon


  • More than 30 studies have examined the ability of scores on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) to predict violence or misconduct. The Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and Violence Potential Index (VPI) Scales of the PAI, in particular, have received substantial attention as predictors of institutional infractions and criminal recidivism. The current study used meta-analysis to provide a comprehensive review of the ability of scores on these and other PAI scales to predict misbehavior. Scores on the ANT (d = .26 to .39) and AGG (d = .23 to .40) scales consistently emerged as small to moderate predictors of misbehavior. Effects tended to be larger in correctional than treatment settings (e.g., ANT d = .44 vs. .20), for institutional misconduct than recidivism (e.g., AGG d = .37 vs. .23), and for institutional misconduct studies with follow up periods of at least 1.5 years (e.g., ANT d = .46). Overall, findings provide support for the predictive validity of multiple PAI scales.

published proceedings

  • Psychol Assess

altmetric score

  • 0.75

author list (cited authors)

  • Gardner, B. O., Boccaccini, M. T., Bitting, B. S., & Edens, J. F

citation count

  • 64

complete list of authors

  • Gardner, Brett O||Boccaccini, Marcus T||Bitting, Brian S||Edens, John F

publication date

  • June 2015