Counterfactual Thinking Facilitates Behavioral Intentions. Academic Article uri icon


  • People often ponder what might have been, and these counterfactual inferences have been linked to behavior regulation. Counterfactuals may enhance performance by either a content-specific pathway (via shift in behavioral intentions) and/or a content-neutral pathway (via mindsets or motivation). Three experiments provided new specification of the content-specific pathway. A sequential priming paradigm revealed that counterfactual judgments facilitated RTs to complete behavioral intention judgments relative to control judgments and to a no-judgment baseline (Experiment 1). This facilitation effect was found only for intention judgments that matched the information content of the counterfactual (Experiment 2) and only for intention judgments as opposed to a different judgment that nevertheless focused on the same information content (Experiment 3). These findings clarify the content-specific pathway by which counterfactuals influence behavior.

published proceedings

  • J Exp Soc Psychol

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Smallman, R., & Roese, N. J.

citation count

  • 94

complete list of authors

  • Smallman, Rachel||Roese, Neal J

publication date

  • January 2009