Pharmacokinetics, bioefficacy, and safety of sublingual testosterone cyclodextrin in hypogonadal men: comparison to testosterone enanthate--a clinical research center study.
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We studied and compared the pharmacokinetics and bioefficacy of two doses of sublingual testosterone cyclodextrin (SLT; 2.5 and 5.0 mg, administered three times per day) with testosterone enanthate (TE; 200 mg) given once every 20 days by im injections over a 60-day study period in 63 hypogonadal men. After SLT administration, serum testosterone (T) levels peaked at 20 min and then fell, reaching baseline levels by 360 min. The calculated half-lives were 60.3 +/- 7.5 and 68.8 +/- 5.0 min after a single dose of 2.5 and 5.0 mg SLT, respectively. The mean area under curve (AUC) of serum T was computed over 20-day periods for the 3 treatment groups. The mean net AUC of serum T after TE administration was about 4- and 2-fold higher than that in the 2.5 and 5 mg groups over the last 20 days. Serum estradiol and dihydrotestosterone followed the same pattern as serum T. Serum estradiol to T ratios decreased after T replacement in all 3 groups, whereas serum dihydrotestosterone to T ratios were not significantly changed by T treatment. Suppression of serum LH and FSH levels was more marked in the patients treated with TE than in those given SLT. Similarly, serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels showed significant decreases with androgen replacement only in the TE and SLT 5.0 mg range groups. There were no significant adverse effects based on comprehensive physical examinations, urea, electrolytes, and renal or liver function tests. Hematocrit levels increased in the TE-treated group, but remained slightly lower than baseline levels in the SLT groups. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed a small, but significant, decrease with time of treatment in all groups. Despite the differences in the AUC of serum T levels achieved by different androgen replacement therapies, all patients showed significant improvements in sexual motivation and performance, with no significant difference between the treatment groups. We conclude that SLT may be a useful addition to the currently available injectable and transdermal delivery systems for treatment of hypogonadal men. Because of the ease of administration, rapid reversibility of effects, and lower AUC of serum T levels achieved compared to those of TE injections, SLT may be especially suitable for treatment of boys with delayed puberty and older men with androgen deficiency.
author list (cited authors)
Salehian, B., Wang, C., Alexander, G., Davidson, T., McDonald, V., Berman, N., ... Swerdloff, R. S.