The spatial and temporal variations of aerosol loading over eastern Asia specified in terms of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at the 550-nm wavelength during July are examined in conjunction with the intensity of the Indian summer monsoon. AOD derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations, gridded reanalyses, and ground-based measurements are used in the analysis. Two contrasting years, 2002 and 2003, which represent weak and active Indian summer monsoon events, respectively, are selected for the study, with a focus on an eastern Asian southern subregion (SR; 2332N, 105120E) and an eastern Asian northern subregion (NR; 3544N, 115130E). It is shown that the interannual variation of July mean wind intensity is a major factor in regulating the midsummer spatial pattern of aerosols over eastern Asia when the Indian monsoon index is anomalously large. The AOD anomalies in the NR and SR are positive and negative, respectively, during an active monsoon year, whereas the opposite is observed during a weak monsoon year. The variation patterns of less cloudy-day visibility, observed at four meteorological stations in the SR and NR subregions, also show spatialtemporal aerosol variability evident in the MODIS AOD data. Relative to the case of a weak monsoon year, meridional winds and convection are stronger and more clouds and precipitation are observed in the NR subregion during the active monsoon year. The opposite pattern is observed in the SR subregion. The spatialtemporal variation pattern of aerosols over eastern Asia illustrates the nonnegligible role of transport and dispersal mechanisms associated with the Indian summer monsoon in the region.