Distribution and assessment of heavy metals in the aquatic environment of Lake Manzala, Egypt
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2015 Elsevier Ltd. Abstract Analysis of trace metals from sediment and fish collected from eight locations in Lake Manzala, Egypt, during May, June and July of 2011, indicated anthropogenic impacts. The highest concentrations of metals, except Mn and Sr, were detected at Bahr Al-Baqar (S1) which drains from Cairo. At the other sampling locations, the concentrations of selected trace metals fall below the levels of concern while the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) suggests unpolluted conditions for the majority of the studied metals at most sites. However, near the Bahr Al-Baqar (S1) drain concentrations of Ag, Hg and Zn fall above the Long and Morgan's (1990) effects range low (ERL) while Pb was above their effects range median (ERM). Igeo values suggest unpolluted to moderately polluted condition for As and Sn, moderately polluted conditions for Zn, moderate to extremely polluted conditions for Ag, and severely to extremely polluted conditions for Pb at Bahr Al-Baqar. Two sites (Legan, S5, and Al-Ginka, S8) were indicated by Igeo as moderately polluted for Ag while two other sites (West of Bashar, S3, and Al Dehdy, S6) were indicated as unpolluted to moderately polluted for Ag. The Legan and Al-Ginka sites were also indicated as being moderately polluted for Zn. Similar to the sediments, the highest concentrations of metals in fish tissue were from Bahr Al-Baqar (S1). Al concentrations at all sites were comparable to concentrations known to cause lesions in fish. At all sites concentrations of selected trace metals in fish tissue were below the limits set by the FAO.