Remote Sensing-Based Damage Assessment for Homeland Security
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For natural or anthropogenic disasters, rapid assessment is critical for an appropriate and effective emergency response. Remote sensing has servedand will continue to servea vital function in disaster damage-assessment activities. This includes disaster-mapping of natural and agricultural ecosystems and human settlements, which may involve assessments of structural damage, contamination, and affected populations. Single- and multi-date (change detection) analyses can be employed, and a need to exploit both spectral and spatial information in order to delineate damage regions from remote sensor imagery is identified. This chapter provides a brief overview of some of the remote-sensing damage-assessment applications that are of utility in the realm of homeland security. Specific attention is given to remote sensing-based detection of vegetation damage and soil contamination, including a discussion of the remote-sensing implications of artificial radionuclide contamination, as well as damage to urbanized areas and other human settlements.
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GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES AND HOMELAND SECURITY: RESEARCH FRONTIERS AND FUTURE CHALLENGES