Rates of fluvial bedrock incision within an actively uplifting orogen: Central Karakoram Mountains, northern Pakistan
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Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) 10Be surface exposure ages for strath terraces along the Braldu River in the Central Karakoram Mountains range from 0.8 to 11ka. This indicates that strath terrace formation began to occur rapidly upon deglaciation of the Braldu valley at 11ka. Fluvial incision rates for the Braldu River based on the TCN ages for strath terraces range from 2 to 29mm/a. The fluvial incision rates for the central gorged section of the Braldu River are an order of magnitude greater than those for the upper and lower reaches. This difference is reflected in the modern stream gradient and valley morphology. The higher incision rates in the gorged central reach of the Braldu River likely reflect differential uplift above the Main Karakoram Thrust that has resulted in the presence of a knickpoint and more rapid fluvial incision. The postglacial fluvial incision rate (2-3mm/a) for the upper and lower reaches are of the same order of magnitude as the exhumation rates estimated from previously published thermochronological data for the Baltoro granite in the upper catchment region and for the adjacent Himalayan regions. 2007.