SPOT multispectral analysis for producing supraglacial debrisload estimates for Batura glacier, Pakistan
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SPOT multispectral and panchromatic data were evaluated to determine their utility to detect debrisload characteristics of the Batura Glacier located in the Karakoram Himalaya. Debrisdepth measurements, surface samples, and ground photography were obtained and used with satellitederived information to produce supraglacial debrisload and discharge estimates. Visual analysis of panchromatic data indicated that structural characteristics of the glacier exhibited unique textures associated with surface structure characteristics. Multispectral analysis revealed that stratified unsupervised classification of principal components can be used to produce classifications depicting supraglacial lithology and shallow debrisload variability. Debrisload discharge estimates ranged from 4897 x 103 m3 yr1. These results indicate that SPOT multispectral data may be used to produce reasonable quantitative estimates of debrisload characteristics for glacier mass balance and regional denudation studies. 1995 Taylor and Francis Ltd.