Understanding ENSO Diversity Academic Article uri icon


  • Abstract El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) is a naturally occurring mode of tropical Pacific variability, with global impacts on society and natural ecosystems. While it has long been known that El Nio events display a diverse range of amplitudes, triggers, spatial patterns, and life cycles, the realization that ENSOs impacts can be highly sensitive to this event-to-event diversity is driving a renewed interest in the subject. This paper surveys our current state of knowledge of ENSO diversity, identifies key gaps in understanding, and outlines some promising future research directions.

published proceedings

  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

altmetric score

  • 44.444

author list (cited authors)

  • Capotondi, A., Wittenberg, A. T., Newman, M., Di Lorenzo, E., Yu, J., Braconnot, P., ... Yeh, S.

citation count

  • 662

complete list of authors

  • Capotondi, Antonietta||Wittenberg, Andrew T||Newman, Matthew||Di Lorenzo, Emanuele||Yu, Jin-Yi||Braconnot, Pascale||Cole, Julia||Dewitte, Boris||Giese, Benjamin||Guilyardi, Eric||Jin, Fei-Fei||Karnauskas, Kristopher||Kirtman, Benjamin||Lee, Tong||Schneider, Niklas||Xue, Yan||Yeh, Sang-Wook

publication date

  • June 2015