INSTABILITY AND FAILURE OF INTERNALLY PRESSURIZED DUCTILE METAL CYLINDERS
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For long, ductile, thick-walled tubes under internal pressure instabilities and final failure modes are studied experimentally and theoretically. The test specimens are closed-end cylinders made of an aluminum alloy and of pure copper and the experiments have been carried out for a number of different initial external radius to internal radius ratios. The experiments show necking on one side of the tubes at a stage somewhat beyond the maximum internal pressure. All tubes, except for one aluminum alloy tube, failed by shear fracture under decreasing pressure. The aluminum alloy tubes exhibited localized shear deformations in the neck region prior to fracture and also occasionally surface wave instabilities. The numerical investigation is based on an elastic-plastic material model for a solid that develops a vertex on the yield surface, using representations of the uniaxial stress-strain curves found experimentally. In contrast to the simplest flow theory of plasticity this material model predicts shear band instabilities at a realistic level of strain. A rather sharp vertex is used in the material model for the aluminum alloy, while a more blunt vertex is used to characterize copper. The theoretically predicted bifurcation into a necking mode, the cross-sectional shape of the neck, and finally the initiation and growth of shear bands from the highly strained internal surface in the neck region are in good agreement with the experimental observations. 1982.