n111308SE Academic Article uri icon


  • Necking and failure in a round tensile test specimen is analysed numerically, based on a set of elastic-plastic constitutive relations that account for the nucleation and growth of micro-voids. Final material failure by coalescence of voids, at a value of the void volume fraction in accord with experimental and computational results, is incorporated in this constitutive model via the dependence of the yield condition on the void volume fraction. In the analyses the material has no voids initially; but high voidage develops in the centre of the neck where the hydrostatic tension peaks, leading to the formation of a macroscopic crack as the material stress carrying capacity vanishes. The numerically computed crack is approximately plane in the central part of the neck, but closer to the free surface the crack propagates on a zig-zag path, finally forming the cone of the cup-cone fracture. The onset of macroscopic fracture is found to be associated with a sharp "knee" on the load deformation curve, as is also observed experimentally, and at this point the reduction in cross-sectional area stops. 1984.

published proceedings

  • Acta Metallurgica

author list (cited authors)

  • Tvergaard, V., & Needleman, A.

publication date

  • January 1, 1984 11:11 AM