NECKING OF BIAXIALLY STRETCHED ELASTIC-PLASTIC CIRCULAR PLATES
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The necking of an elastic-plastic circular plate under uniform radial tensile loading is investigated both within the framework of the three-dimensional theory and within the context of the plane-stress approximation. Attention is restricted to axisymmetric deformations of the plate. The material behavior is described by two different constitutive laws. One is a finite-strain version of the simplest flow-theory of plasticity and the other is a finite-strain generalization of the simplest deformationtheory, which is employed as a simple model of a solid with a vertex on its yield surface. For an initially uniform plate made of an incompressible material, bifurcation from the uniformly stretched state is studied analytically. The regimes of stress and moduli where the governing axisymmetric three-dimensional equations are elliptic, parabolic or hyperbolic are identified. The plane-stress local-necking mode emerges as the appropriate limiting mode from the bifurcation modes available in the elliptic regime. In the elliptic regime, the main qualitative features of the bifurcation behavior are revealed by the plane-stress analysis, although three-dimensional effects delay the onset of necking somewhat. For the deformation theory employed here, the first bifurcation modes are encountered in the parabolic regime if the hardening-rate is sufficiently high. These bifurcations are not revealed by a plane-stress analysis. For a plate with an initial inhomogeneity, the growth of an imperfection is studied by a perturbation method, by a plane-stress analysis of localized necking, and by numerical computations within the framework of the three-dimensional theory. When bifurcation of the corresponding perfect plate takes place in the elliptic regime, the finite element results show that the plane-stress analysis gives reasonably good agreement with the numerical results. When bifurcation of the corresponding perfect plate first occurs in the parabolic regime, then a bifurcation of the imperfect plate is encountered, that is, the finite element stiffness matrix ceases to be positive definite. 1977.