Deformation of single crystal Hadfield steel by twinning and slip
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The stress-strain behavior of Hadfield steel (Fe, 12.34 Mn, 1.03 C, in wt%) single crystals was studied for selected crystallographic orientations ([1̄11],  and [1̄23]) under tension and compression. The overall stress-strain response was strongly dependent on the crystallographic orientation and applied stress direction. Transmission electron microscopy and in situ optical microscopy demonstrated that twinning is the dominant deformation mechanism in [1̄11] crystals subjected to tension, and  crystals subjected to compression at the onset of inelastic deformation. In the orientations that experience twinning, the activation of multiple twinning systems produces a higher strain-hardening coefficient than observed in typical f.c.c. alloys. Based on these experimental observations, a model is presented that predicts the orientation and stress direction effects on the critical stress for initiating twinning. The model incorporates the role of local pile-up stresses, stacking fault energy, the influence of the applied stress on the separation of partial dislocations, and the increase in the friction stress due to a high solute concentration. On the other hand, multiple slip was determined to be the dominant deformation mechanism in [1̄11] crystals subjected to compression, and  crystals deformed under tension. Furthermore, the [1̄23] crystals experience single slip in both tension and compression with planar type dislocations. Using electron back-scattered diffraction patterns, macroscopic shear bands (MSBs) were identified with a misorientation of 9° in the compressed [1̄11] single crystals at strains as low as 1%.
author list (cited authors)
Karaman, I., Sehitoglu, H., Gall, K., Chumlyakov, Y. I., & Maier, H. J.