The effect of heat treatments on Ni43Mn42Co4Sn11 meta-magnetic shape memory alloys for magnetic refrigeration
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The inverse magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in bulk polycrystalline and melt-spun ribbons of the Ni43Mn42Co4Sn 11 meta-magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) is investigated. The influence of several material properties on the MCE and relative cooling power (RCP) are discussed and the property combinations for optimum MCE and RCP identified for a given thermodynamic framework. These include a small slope of magnetic field vs. martensitic transformation temperature phase diagram, a narrow transformation range, low transformation thermal hysteresis and a large change in magnetization on martensitic transformation, which results in low levels of applied magnetic fields desired for repeated MCE on field cycling. The thermo-magnetic responses of the samples were measured before and after heat treatments. The heat-treated ribbons produced the most favorable MCE by exhibiting the highest magnetization change and smallest elastic energy storage through the transformation. This was attributed to the specific microstructural features, including grain size to thickness ratio and degree of L21 ordering. In addition, issues in the literature in determining RCP for MSMAs are discussed, and a new method to find RCP is proposed and implemented. Completely reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation cycles were used to investigate hysteresis losses relative to actual refrigeration cycles, whereby the RCP was calculated using the defined thermodynamic framework and indirectly measured entropy changes. The annealed ribbons exhibited the high RCP level of 242 J kg-1 under the applied field of 7 T compared with a theoretical maximum of 343 J kg-1. Similar values of RCP in other MSMAs can be achievable if microstructural elastic energy storage and hysteresis loss are minimized during the transformation with the help of annealing treatments. © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
author list (cited authors)
Bruno, N. M., Yegin, C., Karaman, I., Chen, J., Ross, J. H., Liu, J., & Li, J.