Plastic potentials for anisotropic porous solids
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The aim of this paper is to incorporate plastic anisotropy into constitutive equations of porous ductile metals. It is shown that plastic anisotropy of the matrix surrounding the voids in a ductile material could have an influence on both effective stress-strain relation and damage evolution. Two theoretical frameworks are envisageable to study the influence of plastic flow anisotropy: continuum thermodynamics and micromechanics. By going through the Rousselier thermodynamical formulation, one can account for the overall plastic anisotropy, in a very simple manner. However, since this model is based on a weak coupling between plasticity and damage dissipative processes, it does not predict any influence of plastic anisotropy on cavity growth, unless a more suitable choice of the thermodynamical force associated with the damage parameter is made. Micromechanically-based models are then proposed. They consist of extending the famous Gurson model for spherical and cylindrical voids to the case of an orthotropic material. We derive an upper bound of the yield surface of a hollow sphere, or a hollow cylinder, made of a perfectly plastic matrix obeying the Hill criterion The main findings are related to the so-called 'scalar effect' and 'directional effect'. First, the effect of plastic flow anisotropy on the spherical term of the plastic potential is quantified. This allows a classification of sheet materials with regard to the anisotropy factor h; this is the scalar effect. A second feature of the model is the plasticity-induced damage anisotropy. This results in directionality of fracture properties ('directional effect'). The latter is mainly due to the principal Hill coefficients whilst the scalar effect is enhanced by 'shear' Hill coefficients. Results are compared to some micromechanical calculations using the finite element method.
author list (cited authors)
Benzerga, A. A., & Besson, J.