Ice and Its Consequences: Glaciation in the Late Ordovician, Late Devonian, PennsylvanianPermian, and Cenozoic Compared Academic Article uri icon


  • Comparison of the duration, onset conditions, and biotic response to the four Phanerozoic glaciations suggests that there are two Phanerozoic glacial modes. Late Ordovician glaciation typifies short-duration, high atmospheric CO2 events, characterized by cosmopolitan faunal distributions and two episodes of catastrophic extinction. Pennsylvanian-Permian and Cenozoic glaciation typify long-duration, low atmospheric CO2 events, characterized by abundant biogeographic differentiation and stable or rising biotic diversity. Late Devonian glaciation appears most similar to Late Ordovician glaciation: it had a short duration; Late Devonian biotas were cosmopolitan; and Late Devonian glaciation was associated with increased extinction at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. On the basis of biotic response, we would predict high atmospheric CO2 levels at the time of Devonian glaciation. However, the Berner GeoCarb curve suggests relatively low atmospheric CO2 levels in the Late Devonian. 2004 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

published proceedings

  • The Journal of Geology

author list (cited authors)

  • Raymond, A., & Metz, C.

citation count

  • 49

complete list of authors

  • Raymond, Anne||Metz, Cheryl

publication date

  • January 2004