Finite-element analysis of controlled-source electromagnetic induction using Coulomb-gauged potentials3-D-FE Analysis of Controlled-Source EM Academic Article uri icon


  • A 3-D finite-element solution has been used to solve controlled-source electromagnetic (EM) induction problems in heterogenous electrically conducting media. The solution is based on a weak formulation of the governing Maxwell equations using Coulomb-gauged EM potentials. The resulting sparse system of linear algebraic equations is solved efficiently using the quasi-minimal residual method with simple Jacobi scaling as a preconditioner. The main aspects of this work include the implementation of a 3-D cylindrical mesh generator with high-quality local mesh refinement and a formulation in terms of secondary EM potentials that eliminates singularities introduced by the source. These new aspects provide quantitative induction-log interpretation for petroleum exploration applications. Examples are given for 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D problems, and favorable comparisons are presented against other, previously published multidimensional EM induction codes. The method is general and can also be adapted for controlled-source EM modeling in mining, groundwater, and environmental geophysics in addition to fundamental studies of EM induction in heterogeneous media.

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Badea, E. A., Everett, M. E., Newman, G. A., & Biro, O.

citation count

  • 113

publication date

  • May 2001