Unexploded ordnance discrimination using time-domain electromagnetic induction and self-organizing maps Academic Article uri icon


  • Self-organizing maps (SOM) are implemented for discrimination of geologic noise, buried metal objects and unexploded ordnance using the geophysical method of time-domain electromagnetic induction. The learning and misfit measures are based on a Euclidean metric. The U*-matrix method is shown to be a reliable tool for determining data clusters and cluster boundaries. The performance of SOM for data-type discrimination was tested using three synthetic, idealized geophysical datasets consisting of exponential, multi-exponential and stretched-exponential decaying transients. In addition, experimental data were acquired using a modified Geonics EM63 instrument. Results from the synthetic examples show that SOM clusters the data based on their functional origin, when represented using U*-matrices. The percentage of correct classification is 100%. Unsupervised learning using the field dataset obtained with the Geonics EM63 succeeded in producing a multi-clustered map in which the background transients cluster themselves and are separated from clusters associated with metal clutter objects and UXO. Even though in some cases the SOM did not produce a single cluster for each type of causative body, it was able to separate clutter data from target data by producing several small clusters. The results are encouraging in view of the heterogeneity and sparsity of the training dataset. © Springer-Verlag 2008.

author list (cited authors)

  • Benavides I, A., Everett, M. E., & Pierce, C.

citation count

  • 12

publication date

  • February 2008