Hybrid fracture and the transition from extension fracture to shear fracture. Academic Article uri icon


  • Fracture is a fundamental mechanism of material failure. Two basic types of brittle fractures are commonly observed in rock deformation experiments--extension (opening mode) fractures and shear fractures. For nearly half a century it has been hypothesized that extension and shear fractures represent end-members of a continuous spectrum of brittle fracture types. However, observations of transitional fractures that display both opening and shear modes (hybrids) in naturally deformed rock have often remained ambiguous, and a clear demonstration of hybrid fracture formation has not been provided by experiments. Here we present the results of triaxial extension experiments on Carrara marble that show a continuous transition from extension fracture to shear fracture with an increase in compressive stress. Hybrid fractures form under mixed tensile and compressive stress states at acute angles to the maximum principal compressive stress. Fracture angles are greater than those observed for extension fractures and less than those observed for shear fractures. Fracture surfaces also display a progressive change from an extension to shear fracture morphology.

published proceedings

  • Nature

author list (cited authors)

  • Ramsey, J. M., & Chester, F. M.

citation count

  • 219

complete list of authors

  • Ramsey, Jonathan M||Chester, Frederick M

publication date

  • January 2004

published in