Inequities in Long-Term Housing Recovery After Disasters
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© 2014 © American Planning Association, Chicago, IL. Problem, research strategy, and findings: Disaster impacts result from interactions between hazard exposure, physical vulnerability, and social vulnerability. We report empirical work from 1992′s Hurricane Andrew in Miami-Dade (FL) and 2008′s Hurricane Ike in Galveston (TX) to assess long-term trends in housing recovery. Longitudinal, parcel-level data on housing units along with neighborhood sociodemographic data permit analysis of the pace of recovery for different neighborhoods, populations, and housing types. Housing recovery is highly uneven for different population groups. Unsurprisingly, damage has major consequences; even after four years, the effects of damage are evident in the rebuilding process. Social vulnerability factors play differently in different settings. In Miami, income and race and ethnicity were critical determinants of higher losses and slower recovery rates, while in Galveston income was the more critical factor, with housing in lower-income areas suffering more damage and lagging significantly in the recovery process. Takeaway for practice: Effective land use policy and building codes can reduce physical vulnerability and ultimately damage, thus enhancing resilience for all. Differentials in impact and recovery trajectories suggest that assessment and the monitoring of recovery is critical to target resources to areas that are lagging. Perhaps most important is having an effective plan in place that addresses housing recovery issues to help reduce long-term consequences. Pre-event planning for housing and social change can help support community vision and overcome inequities.
author list (cited authors)
Peacock, W. G., Van Zandt, S., Zhang, Y., & Highfield, W. E.