Hu, Ping (2012-05). Effects of Oilseed Meals and Isothiocyanates (ITCS) on Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (Cotton Root Rot) and Soil Microbial Communities. Doctoral Dissertation. Thesis uri icon

abstract

  • The meals from many oilseed crops contain biocidal chemicals that are known to inhibit the growth and activity of several soil pathogens, though little is known concerning impacts on whole soil microbial communities. We investigated the effect of oilseed meals (SMs) from both brassicaceous plants, including mustard and camelina, as well as non-brassicaceous plants, including jatropha and flax, on P. omnivora (the casual agent of cotton root rot) in Branyon clay soil (at 1 and 5% application rates). We also investigated the effect of SMs from camelina, jatropha, flax, and wheat straw on microbial communities in Weswood loam soil. We also used four types of isothiocyanates (ITCs) including allyl, butyl, phenyl, and benzyl ITC to test their effects on P. omnivora growth on potato dextrose agar (PDA), as well as on soil microbial communities in a microcosm study. Community qPCR assays were used to evaluate relative abundances of soil microbial populations. Soil microbial community composition was determined through tag-pyrosequencing using 454 GS FLX titanium technology, targeting ITS and 16S rRNA gene regions for fungal and bacterial communities, respectively. The results showed that all tested brassicaceous and jatropha SMs were able to inhibit P. omnivora sclerotial germination and hyphal growth, with mustard SM being the most effective. Flax didn't show any inhibitory effects on sclerotial germination. All tested ITCs inhibited P. omnivora OKAlf8 hyphal growth, and the level of inhibition varied with concentration and ITC type. Total soil fungal populations were reduced by ITC addition, and microbial community compositions were changed following SM and ITC application. These changes varied according to the type of SM or ITC added. Our results indicated that SMs of several brassicaceous species as well as jatropha may have potential for reducing cotton root rot as well as some other pathogens. Different SMs releasing varied ITCs may result in differential impacts on soil microorganisms including some pathogens.
  • The meals from many oilseed crops contain biocidal chemicals that are known to inhibit the growth and activity of several soil pathogens, though little is known concerning impacts on whole soil microbial communities. We investigated the effect of oilseed meals (SMs) from both brassicaceous plants, including mustard and camelina, as well as non-brassicaceous plants, including jatropha and flax, on P. omnivora (the casual agent of cotton root rot) in Branyon clay soil (at 1 and 5% application rates). We also investigated the effect of SMs from camelina, jatropha, flax, and wheat straw on microbial communities in Weswood loam soil. We also used four types of isothiocyanates (ITCs) including allyl, butyl, phenyl, and benzyl ITC to test their effects on P. omnivora growth on potato dextrose agar (PDA), as well as on soil microbial communities in a microcosm study. Community qPCR assays were used to evaluate relative abundances of soil microbial populations. Soil microbial community composition was determined through tag-pyrosequencing using 454 GS FLX titanium technology, targeting ITS and 16S rRNA gene regions for fungal and bacterial communities, respectively.

    The results showed that all tested brassicaceous and jatropha SMs were able to inhibit P. omnivora sclerotial germination and hyphal growth, with mustard SM being the most effective. Flax didn't show any inhibitory effects on sclerotial germination. All tested ITCs inhibited P. omnivora OKAlf8 hyphal growth, and the level of inhibition varied with concentration and ITC type. Total soil fungal populations were reduced by ITC addition, and microbial community compositions were changed following SM and ITC application. These changes varied according to the type of SM or ITC added. Our results indicated that SMs of several brassicaceous species as well as jatropha may have potential for reducing cotton root rot as well as some other pathogens. Different SMs releasing varied ITCs may result in differential impacts on soil microorganisms including some pathogens.

publication date

  • May 2012